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DEFINITIONS

(McKenna, Robert. The Dictionary of Nautical Literacy, New York 2001.)

Gross Registered Tonnage (grt), the measure of total internal volume of a ship, in units of one hundred cubic feet, excluding machinery spaces, bridge and navigation spaces, and other minor spaces essential to the operation of the ship. This measure is applied only to merchant vessels.

Deadweight tonnage, abbreviated "dwt", the number of tons of cargo, stores, and bunker that a vessel can transport. It is the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces when light and when submerged to the deep load line. Also known as "displacement", statement of a ship’s weight expressed in the actual weight of the water a vessel displaces when floating at a given draft. Salt water weighs sixty-four pounds per cubic foot.

Net registered tonnage (NRT), tonnage frequently shown on merchant ship registration papers. It represents the internal volume available for cargo and for passengers. Set at one hundred cubic feet per ton, it is used for port and canal authorities as a basis for tolls and charges.

THE HULL AND RIG OF VESSELS

(Treasury Department, Bureau of Navigation, List of Merchant Vessels of the United States for the Year Ended June 30, 1891, Government Printing Office, 1891.)

The term rig, when applied to vessels, generally refers to the number and kind of masts and style of sails that are carried, but the term is also sometimes used indiscriminately to designate the class of hull or the complete vessel in her entirety.

SHIP
Aside from the generic name of ship, which applies to all species of vessels, we have the term applied to the rig of the largest class of sailing vessels, which has for a long period been known among sailors to designate a three-mast vessel having lower masts, topmast, and topgallant masts with yards (square-rigged) on each mast, and having a bowsprit. When the large, modern merchant ships began to be built the double topsail rig (which was an American invention) was introduced, and more latterly the four-mast ship, now quite common for the long iron ships built in Great Britain. The ship carrying four masts is generally fore-and-aft rigged on the after mast.

BARK
The bark or barque (from the Latin barca) is a rig similar to that of the ship, excepting that it has only fore-and-aft sails (no yards) on the mizzen mast. They generally carry double topsails.

BARKENTINE, ALSO SPELLED BARKANTINE AND BARQUANTINE
The term is derived from the word "barque", and properly signifies a small bark. The barkentine is fitted with three masts, square-rigged with yards on the foremast only, and fore-and-aft sails on the main and mizzen masts. Barkentines are generally constructed with great length in proportion to their breadth.

SCHOONER
A name applied to vessels of fore-and-aft rig of various sizes. Schooners have two or more long lower masts without tops, and are sometimes fitted with light square topsails, especially at the fore; but these are giving way to the fore-and-aft gaff topsails, which are better adopted to the American coast. The schooner used to be the rig chiefly for small vessels, but some of the more modern schooners measure 800 and 1,000 tons, and carry three and four masts.


About The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, Inc.
The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, Inc. is a non-profit organization founded in 1982 to raise funds for and oversee the historic restorations of the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island, working in partnership with the National Park Service/U.S. Department of the Interior. In addition to restoring the monuments, the Foundation created a museum in the Statue’s base and the world-class Ellis Island Immigration Museum, The American Immigrant Wall of Honor® and the American Family Immigration History Center®. Its endowment has funded over 200 projects at the islands.



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